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Tuberculosis Programme

 Tuberculosis Programme TB was declared as a global health emergency in 1993. In the same year, India established the RNTCP as a small pilot project. This project was scaled up nationwide between 1998–2006. The overall vision of RNTCP is “A TB free India”—a situation in which TB is no longer a major public … Read more

Food Safety And Microbial Standards, Food Quality Standards,

 Food safety and Microbial standards, Food quality standards Food safety-Indicators of food microbial Quality and safety-Coliforms, Enterococci, Bifidobacteria, Coliphages/Enteroviruses, predictive Microbiology/ Microbial modeling Microbial Standards of Processed and preserved Foods The Center for disease control (CDC) investigates each documented outbreak of food borne disease and attempts to determine not only the specific microorganisms … Read more

Reproduction And Growth

 Reproduction and growth – type of reproduction Living things grow and they reproduce. Growth is a way to generate the materials for reproduction. Reproduction is a way to make new organisms that can grow. Thus, the apparent “goal” of every organism is to fill the available world with its offspring, that is, with … Read more

Transport Of Water And Minerals In Plants And Animals

 Transport of water and minerals in plants and animals   Transport of water in plants The survival of plants is dependent on a number of factors which include water, minerals, gases, and nutrients they receive. The movement of gas, water, and nutrients in plants are carried out in components. They take in carbon … Read more

Food Bio Technology

 Food bio technology Biotechnology is defined in accordance with the Convention on Biological Diversity, i.e. “any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use” Biotechnology as applied to food processing in most developing countries makes use of microbial inoculants to … Read more

Control Of Pests And Disease

 Control of Pests and Disease Agriculture is the single largest sector of India that provides the principal means of livelihood for over 58.4% of country’s population. It contributes approximately one-fifth of the total gross domestic product (GDP). Agriculture accounts for about 10% of the total export earnings and provides raw material to a … Read more

Types Of Respiration

 Types of respiration External Respiration One method for obtaining oxygen from the environment is through external respiration or breathing. In animal organisms, the process of external respiration is performed in a number of different ways. Animals that lack specialized organs for respiration rely on diffusion across external tissue surfaces to obtain oxygen. Others … Read more

Diseases Related To Kidney

 Diseases related to kidney Abderhalden-Kaufmann-Lignac syndrome Autosomal recessive syndrome of disturbance of amino acid transport characterized by deposition of cystine crystals in numerous tissues of the body, particularly evident in the conjunctiva and cornea. Children in whom cystinosis is found are subnormal in development, with dwarfing, rickets, and osteoporosis. Renal tubular disease, aminoaciduria, … Read more

Structure Of Flower And Reproduction Process

 Structure of flower and reproduction process The Female Reproductive Organ: The Carpel The female parts of a flower consist of an ovary, which contains one or more ovules, a style and the stigma. The ovary is at the base of the flower.  From the ovary, extends a tubular structure called the style and … Read more


 Excretion:In plants Excretion, the process by which animals and plants rid themselves of waste products and of the nitrogenous by-products of metabolism. Through excretion organisms control osmotic pressure—the balance between inorganic ions and water—and maintain acid-base balance. The process thus promotes homeostasis, the constancy of the organism’s internal environment. Plants have no special … Read more

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