Panchayati Raj Of Uttar Pradesh
The Department of Panchayati Raj was created in the year 1948 with the responsibility of guidance, regulation and monitoring of the functioning of Gram Panchayats which were established under the UP Panchayat Raj Act, 1947. In view of ensuring the enhanced role of local rural bodies at the intermediary and districts level, Kshettra Panchayats and Zila Panchayats were added with the enactment of UP Kshettra Panchayat and Zila Panchayat Act, 1961.
At present the state has 75 Zila Panchayats ( District Panchayats) , 821 Kshettra Panchayats ( Intermediary Panchayats )and 51,914 Gram Panchayats ( Village Panchayats). The Ministry of Panchayati Raj with a Cabinet Minister at the helm of affairs and the office of Principal Secretary Panchayati Raj look after the entire ambit of policy making and the affairs related to the Panchayati Raj Institution and administrative functions. To assist the Panchayats in the state, Govt. has created the following offices:
- The State level
- Directorate of Panchayati Raj
- Zila Panchayat Monitoring Cell
- Director Panchayat ( Accounts)
- Chief Audit Officer (Cooperatives and Panchayats)
- Divisional level : Divisional Deputy Director ( Panchayats)
- District level :
⇒ Distric Panchayati Raj Officer
⇒ Apar Mukhya Adhikari (Zila Panchayats)
- Block level : Assistant Development Officer (Panchayat)
- Gram Panchayat Level :Secretary, (Gram Panchayat Adhikari/ Gram Vikas Adhikari)
Apart from the above Department of Panchayati Raj also functions as the administrative department to the Institution of State Election Commission (SEC).
POLICY OF PANCHAYATI RAJ DEPARTMENT
In compliance with the provisions made in the Constitution of India: 1. PRIs as well as the functioning of the Department are governed by the two state Panchayat Acts viz.,
- UP Panchayati Raj Act 1947 and, 2. UP Kshettra Panchayat and Zila Panchayat Act 1961.
- As per two State Panchayat Acts there is a 3 tier PRI system as follows:
Zila Panchayat at District Level
Kshetrra Panchayat at Intermediary (Block) level
Gram Panchayat at the Village level
- Elections are held at regular intervals of 5 years period, under the superintendence of State Election Commission since 1995. Last general elections were held in the year 2010.
- State Finance Commissions are constituted every five years since 1994 to recommend the ways and means to increase the tax base of Panchayats and allocations of State net tax receipts to and among the Panchayats and local bodies. The Last State Finance Commission viz., 4th SFC was constituted in Dec, 2011.
- While there is reservation for SCs/STs in proportion to their population and OBCs subject to a maximum of 27% in seats and the offices of chairpersons, the women have reservation of not less than 1/3 in each and every category including the total strength of the panchayat.
- At Gram Panchayat level election are held to elect a Gram Panchayat through universal adult franchise that is made up of an elected Pradhan (Chairperson) and Members from different wards. Gram Sabha is the most powerful institution at the village level. Gram Sabha consists of all the residents attaining the age of 18 years of Gram Panchayat area and the Pradhan of the Gram Panchayat as Chairperson of the Gram Sabha. The budget of ensuing year and the tasks taken in the previous year are put for discussions and approval in the meetings of Gram Sabha which are compulsorily held after the harvesting of Kharif and Ravi Crops twice in the year. The list of all the schemes and the beneficiaries of various department are also submitted in the meeting of Gram Sabha. Likewise Kshettra Panchayat and Zila Panchayat also perform the activities falling within their jurisdiction.
Policies related to Programmes and Schemes
SCHEME-1 NIRMAL BHARAT ABHIYAN (NBA)
Individual health and hygiene is largely dependent on adequate availability of drinking water and proper sanitation. There is, therefore, a direct relationship between water, sanitation and health. Consumption of unsafe drinking water, improper disposal of human excreta, improper environmental sanitation and lack of personal and food hygiene are major factors of many diseases in developing Countries. Individual health and hygiene is largely dependent on adequate availability of drinking water and proper sanitation. There is, therefore, a direct relationship between water, sanitation and health. Consumption of unsafe drinking water, improper disposal of human excreta, improper environmental sanitation and lack of personal and food hygiene are major factors of many diseases in developing Countries.
SCHEME- 2 RAJEEV GANDHI PANCHAYAT SASHKTIKARAN ABHIYAN (RGPSA)
The 73rd Constitution (Amendment) Act has generated a vast quantum of enthusiasm in Panchayats. The State Govt has done a lot to enable Panchayats to function as a vibrant unit of Local self-unit of democratic governance at grass root level. Yet, as it is a continuous process, the state Govt is to utilize the opportunity provided under RGPSA to strengthen and empower the panchayats.
Developing a strong Panchayati Raj system is essential to improve governance and delivery of services which involves redistribution of power, institution building and development of processes that improve accountability to the people.
SCHEME-3 BACKWARD REGION GRANT FUND (BRGF)
The Scheme is entirely funded by MoPR, GoI. The State Govt through the BRGF aims at:
- Bridge the critical gaps in local infrastructure and other development requirements that are not being adequately met through existing inflows,
- Strengthen, Panchayat and Municipality level governance with appropriate capacity building, facilitating participatory planning, decision making, implementation and monitoring, to reflect local felt needs,
- provide professional support to Local Bodies for planning, implementation and monitoring of their plans, d. improve the performance and delivery of critical functions assigned to Panchayats.
It is evident that the above- stated objectives can be achieved only through the popular participation of the people at large, represented by elected representatives of the Panchayats and Municipal bodies. Therefore Panchayats and municipalities prepare their projects and put them before the District Planning Committee constituted under the UP District Planning Committee Act 1999, for its consideration.
SCHEME -4 STATE FINANCE COMMISSION (SFC)
The State Govt. as per constitutional provisions constituted first State Commission as early as in 1994. The 4th SFC was constituted in Dec, 2011. The mandate of the Commission is to suggest the ways and means to enhance the tax base of Panchayati Raj Institutions so the new sources of income may be added to the Panchayat’s revenue. In addition to it, the Commission is also studying the sources in the divisible pool and recommends the distribution of funds to the ULBs and PRIs from the total net tax receipts of the state.
SCHEME -5 CENTRAL FINANCE COMMISSION (CFC)
The State is receiving the funds under the recommendation of the Central Finance Commissions since 1996-97. Currently the Finance Commission Division, Ministry of Finance is transferring the funds to State Govt. under the recommendation of 13th FC. The Distribution of the funds received from the Central Govt between KPs, ZPs and GPs is as adopted in the SFC, I.e., in the ratio of 20% to ZPs, 10% to KPs and 70% to GPs. The funds are untied at the level of respective panchayats , however the thrusts is on maintenance of drinking water facility , sewage management, solid liquid waste management, street light, village roads and other civic facilities including the rehabilitation and new schemes pertaining to drinking water.
SCHEME -6 DEVELOPMENT OF ANTYESTI STHALS (Cremation Grounds)
To improve the cremation grounds throughout the state and to provide civic facilities at the site of cremation, the State Govt. has launched the scheme of development of existing cremation grounds with the name of “Antyesti Sthalon ka Vikas” ( Development of Cremation Grounds) in the year 2014 -15. The State Govt. is keen to bring more and more such cremation grounds which require improvement and the civic facilities at the traditional sites of such places in the rural areas.
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