Biodiversity-Defination, types, importance, hotspots, threats and conservation The term biodiversity was coined as a contraction of biological diversity by E.O. Wilson in 1985. Biodiversity may be defined as the variety and variability of living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they exist. In other words, biodiversity is the occurrence of different types … Read more

Environmental Concerns Of Tourism Industry

 Environmental concerns of tourism industry, both positive and negative effects including climate change with reference to Himachal Pradesh Environmental concerns of tourism  All too often, the environment is the ultimate victim of development and expansion. Growth pressures have seen Dharamshala’s boundaries encroach on previously untouched land as the local population and tourist demands … Read more

Depletion Of Natural Resources

 Depletion of Natural Resources- Metals, Minerals — Conservation Policy All the materials and energy essential for the survival and welfare of living beings including humans-are provided by nature. They are called natural resources. A thing becomes resource only when it is used by humans to perform a function. Man lives in nature and … Read more

Control Of Pests And Disease

 Control of Pests and crop Disease Agriculture is the single largest sector of India that provides the principal means of livelihood for over 58.4% of country’s population. It contributes approximately one-fifth of the total gross domestic product (GDP). Agriculture accounts for about 10% of the total export earnings and provides raw material to … Read more

Topological And Nontopological Conservation

 Topological & Non-Topological Conservation    Conservation – shape and structure of networks of interacting organisms in ecological systems In-Situ Conservation    Protect whole ecosystem at all levels to protect threatened species (save entire forest to save tiger)  Hot Spots – High endemism & high species richness (in India – Western Ghats (Agasthyamalai hills, … Read more

Impact Of Solid Waste; Recycling And Reuse

 Impact of Solid Waste; Recycling and Reuse HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS An effective solid waste management system is necessary to avoid public health disasters, spread of disease by insects and vectors and adverse effect on water and air. Solid waste workers are the most exposed to the risks of parasitic infections and accidents, … Read more

Soil Conservation Planning On Watershed Basis

 Soil conservation planning on watershed basis Watershed development activity was taken up in the country prior to independence in the state of Maharashtra (then Bombay state) as a scarcity relief work during drought years in which contour binding programme for conservation of moisture and control of soil erosion was mostly undertaken, After independence, … Read more

Management Of Land And Water Resources (2)

 Management of land and water resources LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA Land and water have been the basic elements of life support system on our planet since the dawn of civilization. All great civilizations, flourished where these resources were available in plenty and they declined or perished with the depletion of these resources. … Read more

Afforestation And Deforestation

 Afforestation and deforestation Afforestation Afforestation is the process of planting trees, or sowing seeds, in a barren land devoid of any trees to create a forest. The term should not be confused with reforestation, which is the process of specifically planting native trees into a forest that has decreasing numbers of trees. While reforestation … Read more

Flood And Drought Occurance

 Flood and Drought Occurrence Drought Drought is a complex, slow-onset phenomenon of ecological challenge that affects people more than any other natural hazards by causing serious economic, social and environmental losses in both developing and developed countries. The period of unusual dryness (i.e. drought) is a normal feature of the climate and weather … Read more

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